You must go check out Ira Socol’s most recent post in which he links the slow progression of medicinal practice to educational change. I found myself thinking about Thomas Kuhn’s “Structure of Scientific Revolutions” & paradigm shift. In science, a paradigm continues to reign as long as those locked into the paradigm persist or enough anomalies are collected to re-evaluate the paradigm despite the beliefs of those in power. I wonder when we will accept that too many anomalies already exist in education (i.e.: too many kids are not learning).
I’ve been following Dan Meyer’s process with his 3 acts for quite a while. I greatly appreciate the public nature in which he develops ideas and there is a reason he has so many followers: his ideas are worth paying attention to. As a teacher educator I started thinking about Dan’s three acts with two purposes: 1) What makes 3 Acts an effective strategy, and 2) How might I help my preservice teachers create their own 3 act-like approach to teaching.
What makes 3 Acts effective?
Dan has already written about many ideas as to why 3 Acts works, so pardon any redundancies. I think 3 Acts fits particularly well with what I call Developmental Learning Theory. Specifically, the initial video helps make the problem more concrete and therefore more understandable to the students. Dan often notes that textbooks make the problem abstract far too early. Learners struggle with abstraction and too much abstraction can easily take students beyond their zone of proximal development which leads to reduced motivation. However, developing the problem into the abstract realm is important as the abstract approach/knowledge is what is transferable to diverse contexts. While concrete strategies (such as timing the end of the fan cycle) might work for a specific context, using that context to develop abstract mathematical thinking will be more useful beyond that one problem.
My understanding is that Dan does not intend to use the first act to simply provide context for more traditional instruction during act two. Instead, this is time for students to make predictions and maybe even create strategies to solve the problem. Act two, to me, is the one teachers struggle with the most. In many ways, act two cannot be planned for as the teacher must react to student thinking – thinking that isn’t obvious until the moment. At some point, students will need to be introduced to formal mathematical algorithms. While we might want students to derive formulas, we cannot expect them to do so as novice mathematicians. However, when teachers introduce the more formal algorithm is important. Formulas are some of the most abstract representation of mathematics so formulas should only be introduced after students have wrestled with more concrete representations and maybe even have some intuitive conceptual understanding of the concept. After students have this conceptual understanding, they will be more likely to understand the formula and recognize its utility.
I mentioned transfer earlier. I do not expect students to spontaneously apply new mathematical knowledge to diverse contexts. While we might do that as teachers, students likely lack the interest and knowledge needed to see math wherever they look. However, we can encourage this transfer by explicitly asking students to apply their thinking to new situations. This is where act three of Dan’s approach takes over. These application/extensions take students back to the concrete. That is, they are asked to apply their abstract knowledge to a new concrete situation.
How might teachers create their own 3 Act-like approach?
Dan has recently set up a new site where teachers can submit their act one for “peer review”. I am a big fan of this site and see it as a great way for teachers to try out ideas and get ideas/resources. While this is a great resource I can share with my preservice teachers, I want to go deeper as to what might be a conceptual framework teachers might use to help create videos or even go beyond the three act framework to design effective learning experiences. That is, the three act framework won’t apply to every situation (both within and beyond the math classroom), so what ideas do preservice teachers need to know so that they might be able to do what Dan has done in the creation of 3 Acts? While having more teachers copy the three-act approach would definitely be an improvement in education, I don’t want my preservice teachers to simply copy an approach. Instead, I want my preservice teachers to have a robust knowledge set with which they can evaluate ideas like the 3 Acts and maybe even create their own strategies.
When I first started thinking more deeply about the 3 Acts approach, I realized how much the approach has in common with the Learning Cycle. The first act correlates to the explore phase, the second act to concept development and act three to the application phase. While there are certainly some nuanced differences, I think the learning cycle might be a more far-reaching framework than the three act. That is, Dan’s three acts are a great enactment of the learning cycle, but other approaches might fit within the learning cycle as well. For example, Dan focuses on act one leading to a specific question. However, the learning cycle exploration phase could simply be a data collection event on which students might later reflect. Both specific strategies seem to fit under the broader framework of the learning cycle. Yet, even the learning cycle might be too narrow for the “knowledge set” I want preservice teachers to have so that they might create their own 3 Act-like approach to instruction.
I have some ideas as to what ought to be included in this “knowledge set”, but I think I want to hear from others first. While strategies such as the 3 act or the learning cycle are extremely useful, what do you think preservice teachers need to know in order to evaluate and even create such strategies of their own? I’d love to see a list going in the comments and hope that list expands my own thinking on the topic!
I respect Larry Cuban a lot. I’m
disappointed nervous about his most recent post. Not because of what he has to say, but because he is a guy who knows the history of technology in schools very well. So when he says that online schools are coming,he is probably right. (Yes, I know online schooling is not new, but he is talking about a much larger scale).
Larry talks about the hype cycle, but I think online schooling might be more problematic than previous technologies. When each classroom was outfitted with a TV, the teacher could choose to use the TV or not. When all schools go online, the teacher will have to teach online. Yet, as any techno-enthusiast will note (when sufficiently pushed against a wall) we need balance. Ya, that is true, but it’s hard to have balance between digital and non-digital instruction when school takes place online. When we get to the “trough of disillusionment” it will be too late – you can’t simply ignore the fact that your school is now online.
Oh, and don’t give me any BS about an effective teacher would have students doing science experiments in their homes. AHHHH! Maybe that is true, but an effective teacher can’t then notice an anomaly and ask just the right question at just the right time to stimulate that child’s interest and push their thinking deeper than if the student simply followed the directions.
We need to stop being led down this rabbit hole. Unfortunately, the siren call is coming from within. When you believe technology makes you a better teacher, you fall a bit further. YOU are what make you a good teacher. If you can’t teach well without digital technology, I am willing to bet large sums of money that you aren’t a very good teacher with digital technology.
Stop letting the Bill Gates’ of the world decide what our school should look like.
(end of rant, but no apologies)
Dr. Jason Glass spoke to the faculty at my university last week. I could tell from the discussion that Jason has learned a lot about education in Iowa over the last year. I respect that he has foregone some initial goals given the realities of the situation we are in. Furthermore, I feel less like he is pushing onward no matter the result & instead am mildly optimistic that he is putting forth some ideas to be tried & then refined. Only time will tell if my optimism is accurate.
Jason encouraged us to read the blueprint & let him know what he got right & what he got wrong. I think (hope) Jason & I have a mutual respect & that he wants honest & useful feedback. So, here goes nothing.
I like most of the document, but still maintain that the devil is in the details. Unfortunately, there aren’t a lot of details there. Which could be a very good thing as this leaves room for flexibility & reacting to data. I like the move toward what I call “reasonable accountability”. Teachers are evaluated by multiple measures & students are provided affordances to meet expectations in non-traditional ways as well as move on from remediation when ready. That is, the third grade retention is not simply a “do the whole year over” no matter what.
While there are many things I’m optimistic about there is a set of related issues glaringly unrepresented in the discussion of teacher quality*: pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge & understanding how people learn. There are many references to holding new teachers to high levels of accountability regarding content knowledge, but essentially no mechanism for ensuring high levels of pedagogical knowledge or sufficient understanding of learning. There is mention of ensuring preservice teachers have high quality mentors & that they learn how to design effective lessons, but there is no plan to assess this. My own, as well as other’s, research makes very clear that what is assessed is what is valued. If we do not somehow assess teachers pedagogical knowledge & knowledge of learning I know this construct will fall by the wayside to make room for what is assessed: content.
This is related to something Jason & I disagree on. Whether increased content knowledge makes one a better teacher. Jason, from our discussion last week, supports content masters degrees over teaching masters degrees. I do not think this is prudent (but do agree many teaching masters degrees are simply devices to get paid more). While content knowledge is necessary, it is insufficient to becoming an effective teacher. Over the last 40 years researchers (who have published in peer-reviewed journals rather than a consulting firm report) have sought to make a connection between content & teaching efficacy. The best case that can be made is that the research is inconclusive. That is, some studies say content courses make better teachers (although most note content knowledge is not sufficient) while other studies find no correlation between content courses & teaching efficacy. An inconclusive result after 40 years? To me, this means there is likely not a strong correlation (certainly not one basing reform efforts on). If there were an important correlation, the overall research landscape would point in that direction after so much time.
More anecdotally, I am a content expert. I have the equivalent of a masters degree in chemistry. I can clearly recall why I entered teaching: because I was good at explaining things clearly. That is, I thought good teachers we good at explaining things in very basic ways. I no longer think that. Now, I believe a quality teacher is one who helps others construct meaning by providing rich experiences and encouraging carefully guided reflection (of course this is simplified). My point here is that my curriculum & instruction classes were instrumental in changing my view of teaching & learning! Had it not been for those courses, I would likely be a very traditional lecture-based teacher Yet, such courses are undervalued in the blueprint as I explained earlier.
As another anecdote, think back to your college content courses. How many of them were taught in a manner consistent with how people learn? My college professors all had PhDs in their field, yet believed that lecture & text were effective ways to teach. I cannot blame them. That was likely their experience & they did not have curriculum & instruction courses like I did.
Now, I do think teacher content knowledge is important & don’t want the previous three paragraphs to confuse my point. So, if I were to change one thing in the blueprint, I would ensure that we place significant importance on (which based on the blueprint’s design means to explicitly assess) teacher understanding of pedagogy & how people learn as well as their content understanding.
*I’ve provided a screen capture related to teacher quality from the blueprint for reference. Highlights are mine, but related to my point.
Implementation is everything.
I’m not philosophically against the notion that we ought to be expecting teachers to “add value” to students’ schooling experience. However, when we use prescriptive tests to decide how much value is added, I take issue. For example, in TN a restructuring of compensation is about to be implemented. This system seems quite comprehensive and my first reaction was to think of Occam’s razor. That is, this complex system seems to be just a new way to reward the same stuff. Of course there are some differences – most notably the 35% of teacher’s rating from a value added measure based on Tennessee’s state exam.
So, the implicit message here is that certain things matter. Those things are covered by a certain test. Yet, schooling is so very much more than acquisition of certain content. So, my beef is not with expecting teachers to add value, my beef is with expecting teachers to add certain value. When we prescribe these certain tests, my concern is that we prescribe a greater narrowing of the curriculum. I am confident this country’s teachers can raise test scores, I’m just not sure we’re using tests on which improved test scores are desirable.
Enough complaining, how about a different idea?
When teaching middle school I often studied my students’ learning. I gave students pretests (sometimes MC, sometimes essays, sometimes interviews, and sometimes concept maps) and then monitored student progress all the way until the end of the year (usually at least one mid-year assessment and then a final assessment)*. The things I tracked throughout the year were academic/educational interests of mine. Things I wanted to study how well students were learning. The things I studied went far deeper than any standardized test I’ve seen or heard of. Specifically, in the last two years of my k-12 teaching I studied how well students came to understand the nature of science and how students views of learning changed over time. In both cases, my students made significant progress over the course of the year. That is, I could reliably demonstrate added value for each of my students. Yet, the value I could demonstrate having added is not the value for which the state would be looking.**
While I love to rage against the machine, I also like to “work the system”. So, if value added measures are coming (and I suspect they are in my state), let’s put politicians’ money where their mouth is and actually treat teachers like professionals. Let’s actually put power in teachers’ hands instead of just claiming to do so.
Here’s a very simple proposal***:
1) Teachers choose at least one of their goals for students to study each year. (i.e.: content understanding, communication skills, writing proficiency, critical thinking, problem-solving, attitude toward subject, or many others). If a group of teachers wants to work collaboratively on a goal, great!
2) Professional development days are dedicated to teachers being able to research how they might promote their chosen goal, research how they might reliably assess the construct, and/or collaborate with peers to plan.
3) Teachers identify how they will track progress concerning their goal. Ideally, tracking of progress is multi-dimensional. Perhaps an instrument already exists in the education literature for pre/post testing, students might reflect periodically on the goal, or maybe the teacher will review classroom video to see what changes are, or are not, occurring.
4) Teachers will summarize results and perhaps present to colleagues, or at least to administrators. I see “lessons learned” (what worked/didn’t work) being just as important as the actual improvement of students. The 35% of “value added” could be tied to the success of the intervention or even just the completion of such a study (cause we learn a LOT from failure).
Will such a system be more work for teachers? yes.
Will such a system raise the awareness of many teachers? yes.
Will such a system stimulate school-wide improvement? yes.
Will such a system be more authentic and likely more interesting for teachers? yes.
Will such a system allow for context-based improvement of practice? yes.
Will such a system be a better use of money? yes – we don’t need to be dumping tax-payers money into testing companies.
If we want to give teachers bonuses, learn from google and give them freedom in what they choose to study/create. If we want to tie teacher compensation to value added, teachers ought to decide what is of most value in their context.
*Of course I assessed students much more often than this, these were just the more formal, long term assessments.
**I would challenge anyone to say improving a students view of learning is less important than learning the formula for density. (d=m/v)
***I pretty much wrote this as I brainstorm. I think there is something here, but it would obviously need some refinement. The key here is giving teachers choice in how and what they improve. Imagine if a teacher did a study like this every year for 30 years….wow!
I just got done with a webinar on the flipped classroom. I appreciated the dialogue. I am confident that the people in the webinar are each tremendous educators. While I don’t see the flipped classroom as where instruction ought to be heading, I can appreciate the goal of the flippers to create time in their classes to do more exploration and inquiry. Yet, my notion of the very best of teaching is that the inquiry and exploration generates content delivery rather than keeping content delivery prepackaged. I even believe that deep down the founders of the “flipped model” believe this too. Consider this quote from their website:
We have found that subjects where students have to follow a set of specific instructions is the best use of podcasts. balancing chemical equations, doing stoichiometric calculations. What we have also noted is that really tough conceptual topics like quantum mechanics and atomic theory have not worked as well. Next year we may just do these live in the class…
Stoichiometry doesn’t have to be understood as specific instructions. It is likely better understood conceptually. If we believe authentic learning is conceptual (as opposed to algorithmic), even the biggest flip promoters recognize that they “may just do these live in class…”. Nothing can replace the idiosyncratic, dynamic and contextual exchange between teacher and student. Nothing. Moving the unidirectional dissemination of information (aka: lecture) to a different time slot doesn’t make it interactive.
First off, the flipped classroom is not so very new, but then again, not much is. Consider the learning cycle. This “flips” traditional instruction by starting with student exploration, then going into concept development. The problem is in implementation. When using the learning cycle, many teachers simply have kids “play” with stuff, then go into a lecture and call it “concept development”. The real downfall here of the current flip system is that “concept exploration” is defined by activities such as watch a video & listen to audio. This is not so much concept development as it is an attempt at concept collection. This is a subtle but important point.
Concept development is when students are the ones, with teacher guidance, developing mental models and ideas around a concept. Concept collection, in my definition, is more like expecting kids to “collect” the concepts from the teacher in tact instead of construct the concepts from prior experiences and teacher guidance. In most of the current dialogue around flipping, the exploration and concept development remain isolated events. In the very best classrooms, I envision exploration leading organically into concept development. What I envision is idiosyncratic, is VERY hard to plan for, and very hard to accomplish.
Additionally, the whole “students can engage with material at own pace” rhetoric is old news. Kids could do that with textbooks too, but did they? IMO, the key difference in changing education is how connection is made between content & experience. Having a prerecorded lecture cannot authentically react to kids genuine experience. It will be contrived, just like a text book is. Yet, video & textbooks are great as additional resources. As long as video or text (no matter how well designed) is the major mode of content delivery, little has changed. While kids might be doing more application in the classroom, application is very different than creation & synthesis. Application as a step forward, but it is not the goal – I want students to create as they learn, not just after they learn.
*Hat tip to Frank Noschese
Khan Academy is not going away. So, how could we make use of Khan Academy?
1) As a textbook. After students have had experiences and discussed ideas in class, I often gave students reading assignments out of textbooks (notice the reading comes AFTER the exploration of ideas). Khan Academy could be useful in the same way. After students have explored topics and put forth their own ideas and been guided by an expert teacher toward accurate conceptual understanding, then Khan Academy can fill in the gaps.
2) As a model for learning (hear me out on this one). What Khan has done is taken upon himself to learn and then demonstrate that learning by attempting to teach others. What Khan has done is exactly what we want students doing! We don’t want students watching Khan’s videos, we want student creating such videos to demonstrate their understanding. Or, consider having students create the textbook – that is, students decide what are the important ideas and what examples to use regarding your content area.
3) As example in Schools of Education. I showed my preservice teachers videos from KA and from Veritiasium and asked them to compare them given what we know about how people learn and effective teaching. All I’ll say is that I have very bright students who recognized important differences immediately!
4) As assessment for students. After students have learned about X topic. Have them watch Khan’s video on X. Their assignment will be to identify the inaccuracies or important pieces missing from the ten minute summary of a topic they spent weeks coming to understand.
What other ways would you effectively use Khan Academy in the classroom?
PS: There is little reason to use Khan Academy as a “review tool”. If you want students to have videos from which they can review, take 15 minutes at the end of your day and do it yourself – you know your students better than Khan, and you likely know your content better too.
Imagine a class engaged in an authentic problem*. Let’s say they are trying to understand how to wire a ceiling fan (or some other thing, doesn’t matter). One student says, “Hey, I have a room in my house where I can turn the fan on in two different places.” The teacher then asks the class, “Why might this be valuable?” Students give some answers and the teacher says, “ok, how would you do it?” At this point the teacher might have students talk with partners, draw some pictures or mess around with some simple electrical circuits that mimic the room wiring. Students might “discover” ways to do this, and if they don’t, the teacher can show them a way to do it (after students have mentally wrestled with the task a bit). The key instructional piece comes next when the teacher can discuss parallel circuits and the flow of electrons through a circuit.
Notice how the teacher was able to leverage student experiences and interest to introduce a new concept in a way that encourages active mental engagement. Notice how the problem led to introduction of content. Yes, the content would be explained by the teacher, but only when students need the new information or to label something they have already mentally constructed.
A video (such as Khan Academy’s) cannot lead a group of learners like this. The flipped classroom does not encourage the organic flow of learning like this. I believe only a teacher who deeply understands their content and how people learn can create a learning experience like this.
*Please forgive the simplicity of of the example.
A few days ago, I was sent this link to an article where a physics professor “discovers” that lecture isn’t working.
What I find hilarious (in an infuriating way) is that this physics professor could have found this out very easily had he walked only a few blocks to his university’s education department and asked a few questions. If I had a question about chemistry, I would not hesitate to ask the chemists. Yet, when talking teaching, we are all somehow on the same plane despite my expertise in education.
Perhaps I should just change my perspective: “Since everyone else is an expert in education because they have been “educated”, I should rightfully claim my own expertise in biology – I have, after all, been a living organism for over 31 years!
**Edit/addendum: as a friend helped me understand, the physics prof likely does not believe this study to be groundbreaking & has done work in science education before. So, rather than criticizing the physics prof, my frustration is more accurately placed in the author of the media piece who is lauding these findings as novel rather than soon some more research with the university education Dept.